Magic Squares

Magic squares have been known for a long time. The oldest known magic square goes back to the Emperor Yu, who lived about 2200 B.C. in China. Although this is only a legend, it shows how this fascinating part of mathematics has occupied human beings for thousands of years.


On these pages some general information about magic squares and their properties can be found. As too much theory sometimes looks very dry, some fascinating magic squares are presented in a gallery.

Another main aspect deals with the construction of magic squares. Some design techniques are presented in detail, but most of them are only described in my PDF book, which is now also available in English. Additionally you can choose from a great variety of different methods to produce magic squares interactive.

Closely related to magic squares are magic rectangles. However, since the construction methods differ greatly, they are presented in a special PDF document.

Have fun, dani

Last update:   Sa 11. Feb 2023  –  Magic rectangles (extended),   English translation of my PDF book,   Bimagic squares from Sudoku-squares