Magic Squares

Magic squares have been known for a long time. The oldest known magic square goes back to the Emperor Yu, who lived about 2200 B.C. in China. Although this is only a legend, it shows how this fascinating part of mathematics has occupied human beings for thousands of years.


On these pages some general information about magic squares and their properties can be found. As too much theory sometimes looks very dry, some fascinating magic squares are presented in a gallery.

Another main aspect deals with the construction of magic squares. Some design techniques are presented in detail, but most of them are only described in my PDF book, which is now also available in English. Additionally you can choose from a great variety of different methods to produce magic squares interactive.

Note: Some parts of these interactive pages may change in the background. When you encounter strange behavior or even errors, first try bypassing your browser cache.

Have fun, dani

Last update:   Sa 05. Mar 2022  –  English translation of my PDF book,   Bimagic squares from Sudoku-squares